You've certainly seen the news story -- "Piece of Amelia Earhart's Plane Conclusively Identified". That's actually incorrect. But it's a nifty trick that a research group called TIGHAR has pulled to make you believe so, aided by rather clueless news outlets that love to post sensational stories.
There is more to this tale. There is almost ALWAYS way more to the story than a press release or news feature will reveal. How is the reader to know? Engage some skepticism no matter how much you want to think it's true.
Let's examine the TIGHAR claim that they have a real piece of Earhart's plane.